Obstetrician–gynecologists have a tradition of providing preventive care to women. An annual visit provides an excellent opportunity to counsel patients about maintaining a healthy lifestyle and minimizing health risks. The annual health assessment should include screening, evaluation and counseling, and immunizations based on age and risk factors. The interval for specific individual services and the scope of services provided may vary in different ambulatory care settings. The performance of a physical examination is a key part of an annual visit, and the components of that examination may vary depending on the patient’s age, risk factors, and physician preference. In general, the physical examination will include obtaining standard vital signs, determining body mass index, palpating the abdomen and inguinal lymph nodes, and making an assessment of the patient’s overall health. Many, but not all, women will have a pelvic examination and a clinical breast examination as a part of the physical examination. Information on these core elements of the physical examination is provided in the following sections. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (the College) has comprehensive recommendations and resources for the annual health assessment of women available online at www.acog.org/wellwoman.